Problems to be solved in the development of the ho

2022-10-22
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Problems to be solved in the development of wind power industry and Countermeasures

developing wind power industry is an important direction for building a low-carbon society, ensuring energy supply, cultivating strategic emerging industries, and promoting economic restructuring. China's installed capacity of wind power has ranked first in the world for four consecutive years. However, with the rapid development, we have to examine several major problems existing in the development of China's wind power industry. Whether these problems can be handled and solved will directly affect the healthy and benign development of China's wind power industry

weaknesses and challenges in industrial development

from the perspective of industrial layout, there are mainly three problems:

emphasis on wind farm construction and light industry supporting. Taking Jiangsu as an example, Jiangsu has made great efforts in the development of downstream wind farms. According to the project plan of Jiangsu onshore wind farm, the installed capacity of onshore wind power is planned to be 3million kW by the end of 2015. This plan has been basically completed, and only low wind speed areas remain. This is inseparable from the strategy of taking the development of wind farms as the focus of development in Jiangsu coastal areas. All regions generally adopt the strategy of exchanging resources for equipment, but pay less attention to attracting wind power manufacturing enterprises and building wind power supporting industrial chain, and the promotion is not enough, so that at present, there are few available wind power resources left, which makes it difficult to attract a large number of wind power equipment manufacturing enterprises to settle down and develop on a large scale

heavy parts production, light machine manufacturing. Based on Jiangsu's good manufacturing foundation, at present, there are many wind power accessories enterprises in Jiangsu that mainly manufacture high-speed gear boxes, fan blades and other parts, but in the field of machine manufacturing, the foundation is still relatively weak, and only a few enterprises such as Sinovel can produce wind power whole sets

emphasis on imported assembly, light independent research and development. At present, most of the wind turbine manufacturing enterprises in Jiangsu Province import parts from other places and assemble them locally, playing the role of a processing plant. In particular, they lack core technology and scientific and technological content, and have not been able to form a complete industrial chain from independent research and development, testing, to the production, assembly and commissioning of complete machines, lacking the core competitiveness of complete machine research and development and manufacturing

from the perspective of the current situation of industrial development, there are mainly three problems:

market competition is intense, and the phenomenon of mutual price reduction is obvious. Due to the good wind resources and strong power in Jiangsu Province, the local government has given great support to the wind power industry in previous years. Under the leadership of the group, wind power developers invested heavily to seize resources. The direct consequence is that today's market competition is white hot. There is a phenomenon of mutual price pressure among wind power equipment manufacturers, and all enterprises cannot maximize benefits. Take small wind turbines as an example. Due to intensified competition, the price of 1.5MW wind turbines of a company in Nanjing has decreased significantly, from 400000 yuan per unit in February 2013 to less than 300000 yuan now, a decrease of more than 25%

the profitability of some wind power development projects is low. The early development projects of wind power in Jiangsu and other provinces in China adopt the concession project method of bidding. The developer who can provide the lowest electricity price wins the bid. The winning developer is responsible for the investment, construction, operation and maintenance of the wind power project. The government signs an electricity purchase agreement with the winning developer to ensure that all electricity will be purchased at the bidding price within the specified period. According to the current electricity price policy of the national development and Reform Commission, the electricity price of onshore wind power projects is 0.6 yuan/kWh, while the onshore import price of concession projects in early bidding still continues to be 0.49 yuan per kWh, which puts great pressure on profits. At present, most of these concession projects are at the critical point of profit and loss, some even suffer losses, and the profitability of enterprises is low

it is difficult for some enterprises to withdraw funds, and there is great liquidity pressure. Due to the financing difficulties and tight funds of some wind power enterprises, it directly affects the capital withdrawal of upstream wind power equipment manufacturing enterprises. According to the survey enterprises, there are almost no direct payment methods for downstream enterprises through cash or bank deposits. Generally, they pay by acceptance. Due to the time limit, the return of funds of enterprises is affected, and the mutual pressure between upstream and downstream enterprises is common, which increases the operational risk and capital pressure of wind power equipment enterprises

the most important challenge facing the wind power industry is reflected in the following two aspects:

the quality bottleneck of domestic fans is obvious, which restricts the further development of enterprises. The investment of domestic fans in the early stage is small, but there are some problems in the technical quality of fans. The investment and maintenance costs in the late stage are large, the comprehensive cost is much larger than that of imported fans, and the profitability is not strong. For example, according to the author's investigation in a wind power company in Qidong, the surrounding villagers dig ponds within the land occupied by the wind turbines for breeding. If repair or maintenance is carried out, the fish ponds need to be backfilled. The negotiated backfilling of a fish pond ranges from hundreds of thousands to hundreds of thousands. The maintenance of the gearbox needs 700000 ~ 800000 yuan, and the use of special lifting equipment, such as 500 ton large crane, requires 200000 ~ 300000 yuan at a time. According to a wind power company in Yancheng, according to the experience of foreign wind power development, the full life cycle of a wind farm, including unit overhaul and operation and maintenance, accounts for about 27%. However, considering the poor quality of domestic wind power equipment and the high requirements of wind power, this cost may be twice as high. The disadvantages in the comprehensive use cost of domestic wind turbines have seriously restricted the further development of wind power equipment enterprises

the reduction of electricity price promotes the reshuffle of the industry. On December 24, 2015, the national development and Reform Commission issued the notice on improving the benchmark electricity price policy for onshore wind photovoltaic power generation. In 2016, the benchmark electricity price in four resource areas of wind power will be adjusted from the current 0.51, 0.54, 0.58, 0.61 yuan/kWh to 0.47, 0.50, 0.54, 0.6 yuan/kWh, and will be further adjusted to 0.44, 0.47, 0.51, 0.58 yuan/kWh by 2018. Jiangsu belongs to the fourth category of wind power resource area. From 2009 to 2015, onshore wind power projects have adopted the technical name and technical parameter price scheme of 0.61 yuan/kWh. If the electricity price is reduced to 0.58 yuan/kWh by 2018, the price reduction rate is close to 5%, which may cause the internal rate of return on equity of wind farms in Jiangsu to drop by 2 to 2.5 percentage points. It can be predicted that those wind power manufacturers who have been hovering around the profit and loss point will likely turn into losses or even withdraw from the market at that time

five suggestions for the development of wind power industry

to deal with these problems in the development of wind power industry, we can improve from the following aspects:

first, integrate existing regional resources, re plan and adjust the industrial layout reasonably. Although Jiangsu and some other provinces have basically formed a wind power industry chain, in order to avoid vicious competition in the market, government departments should integrate the existing regional resources in a timely manner and distribute and layout them reasonably in combination with the regional wind energy resource situation and industrial development foundation. At the same time, we will promote the construction of the base, expand and strengthen the leading wind power enterprises that have now developed into large-scale ones, and form an industrial pattern based on leading enterprises and led by the wind power industry base

second, formulate supporting policies to mobilize the enthusiasm of local governments and investors. For qualified wind power equipment enterprises, we will support the application for major national science and technology projects, high-tech industrialization projects and other financial support. At the same time, we should strengthen the assistance to wind power enterprises in terms of tax policies. Eligible enterprises can raise funds by listing and issuing corporate bonds. Accelerate the establishment of venture capital, guide entrepreneurial venture capital, support the development of wind power industry, lithium battery is developing rapidly in its technical indicators

third, build a certification platform to promote technological innovation in the wind power industry. Focusing on key areas such as wind turbines, key components and control systems, we should build national and provincial enterprise technology centers, engineering technology research centers and other wind power technology innovation support platforms. We will build a public service platform for the testing of wind power products and equipment, promote the construction of onshore and offshore wind power test sites, and formulate local standards for wind power generation technology to provide technical support for building wind power industry clusters

IV. actively launch relevant supporting policies to comprehensively ensure the development of wind power industry. The healthy and rapid development of wind power requires not only incentive policies directly for wind power itself, but also other relevant supporting policies to provide support for the smooth development of wind power. Compared with foreign countries, China still has many gaps in supporting policies and urgently needs to be improved. Although the wind power technology standard system has been basically sound, and the relevant testing and certification mechanism has been basically established, due to various reasons, the implementation of these policies is not ideal, and the implementation level of the policies needs to be strengthened as soon as possible

v. at the same time of policy incentives, we should pay attention to the standardization requirements of the wind power industry. For a long time, the remarkable feature of China's wind power development policy is that it focuses on guidance and stimulation, which means that products are more low-carbon and environmental incentives, while light constraints and norms, which is also an important reason for the disorderly development and overcapacity of the wind power industry in Jiangsu and the country

to change this situation, local governments must reasonably determine the annual development scale in accordance with the requirements of the national medium and long-term development plan for the wind power industry, and coordinate the approved scale and layout of national and local projects as a whole; The scope of supervision should not only cover wind power project development enterprises and power enterprises, but also extend to wind power equipment manufacturers, and a traceability mechanism should be established for wind power accidents caused by wind power equipment quality problems; The technical standards of wind power should be revised and improved in time to promote wind power to continuously approach or have the output characteristics of conventional power supply

(author unit: Jiangsu Survey Corps of the National Bureau of Statistics)

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